Non-permanent workers include 단기알바 part-time workers and other precarious job groups, such as expatriate workers, contract workers and casual workers. More and more companies in Japan are hiring non-regular workers (including part-time workers, temporary workers and business travelers).
Although Japan has seen an increase in the number of non-permanent workers (part-time, temporary or posted), the terms of employment have traditionally been lower than those offered to permanent workers. There has never been any regulation on the types of positions that can be held on a temporary or part-time basis (whereas posted workers have always been limited to certain types of positions). Since these jobs will only have to be filled by full-time employees, the company’s personnel costs will rise, and controversy is likely to follow over the conversion of illegal workers to permanent employees.
It is more difficult for the unemployed to find work in the permanent employment sector. The permanent job sector is dominated by the effects of capitalization and redistribution of workers. This price effect, faster productivity growth increases the number of vacancies. Second, faster productivity growth tends to increase job creation in the permanent sector but reduce job creation in the casual sector by increasing labor flows from the casual to the permanent sector. Shifts increase the creation of jobs in the permanent sector and therefore permanent employees.
Other women, on the other hand, are easily drawn into the vicious cycle of precarious work, despite their desire to be permanent workers, because it is difficult in the Japanese labor market to change occupations from casual to full-time jobs. Outdated Social Norm of Intermittent Workers Another aspect of Japanese work culture worth mentioning is the recognition of non-permanent workers as a means of supporting their families, as part-time work for married women was considered an acceptable non-permanent job. generations. Another Equal Pay for Work of Equal Work Act prohibits unreasonable discrimination in working conditions between “permanent workers” with permanent contracts and other workers with fixed-term or part-time contracts (“non-permanent workers”). The amendments aim to promote the principle of “equal work, equal pay” by standardizing the treatment of workers who have substantially similar job responsibilities, positions, experience, skills and responsibilities when it is unreasonable to distinguish between occasional and ordinary treatment and working conditions. depending on the circumstances of their use.
On the contrary, as the Japanese Supreme Court has repeatedly stated in five major rulings, whether this difference in treatment is unreasonable must be decided on a case-by-case basis on a variety of relevant circumstances, such as the duties and scope of responsibility of non-regular employees versus full-time employees at the same level, if the waiver of benefits is consistent with the purpose of the benefits, and if the firm’s specific practice of hiring temporary workers on a permanent basis is not full-time. It is worth noting that the Supreme Court of Japan did not believe in Japan Post’s argument that the benefits given to full-time employees were based on the understanding that they would be working continuously, because even if the contracts of non-permanent employees are renewed every six or twelve months, in The reality of Japan Post’s practice clearly expects non-permanent employees to be hired full-time. In other words, companies rarely fire regular employees, and long-term employees are often willing to take instructions from their employers and make significant sacrifices as long as they stay busy, regardless of the employee’s job description. Fire rank-and-file employees who are underperforming. Underperforming employees are generally not considered valid reasons to leave because you are free to move or assign employees to positions that best suit their abilities.
The rate of irregular employment of researchers in universities and research institutions is 52% higher than that of ordinary workers (194,064 people); many researchers have obtained PhDs, thus holding precarious academic positions for extended periods, even part-time, on a fixed or permanent basis26). The Employment Service Report conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) reports on the relationship between vacancies and applications (yuko kyujin bairitsu) of both permanent and temporary workers. reflecting the established labor market. While the number of contract workers decreased by 170,000 between August 2006 and March 2007, non-permanent workers such as temporary/daily workers (200,000), part-time workers (170,000), seconded workers – “sent” workers to another job since the labor intermediary cannot hire them for more than two years  (40,000), etc., increased.
The government has said the period for hiring contract workers should be extended from the current two years to three years, while the unions have pushed for a complete end to the irregular work system. In accordance with the above decision, the government should ensure better and fair treatment of immigrant workers and develop a plan for immigration law reform. The work permit system for foreign workers, which came into force in 2003, did not adequately protect immigrant workers from discrimination.
Recently, many illegal workers have been arrested, detained and immediately sent back to their countries. Some workers were detained for several months for administrative reasons or for non-payment of wages that their employers did not pay them. The purpose of this article is to report on the results of previous studies on the health status of casual workers and to describe the specific employment situation of Japanese casual women.
Pissarides (2000) 2007; Miyamoto and Takahashi 2011), I consider the following linear relationship between long-term labor market variables and long-term productivity growth yt = b 0 y + b 1 ygt + eyt, where yt is the labor market variable in the long run (share of casual workers to total number of employed ph and the unemployment rate), gt is the productivity growth rate, b 0 and b 1 are parameters, and eyt is a well-behaved stochastic disorder.